Knee Replacement Surgery

Knee Replacement Surgery

What is Knee Replacement Surgery?

Arthroplasty is also known as knee replacement surgery. It is performed for patients having severe arthritis or a knee injury.

There are different types of arthritis that affect the knee joint.

  1. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that affects mostly middle-aged and older adults. It can cause the breakdown of joint cartilage as well as the adjacent bone of knees.
  2. Rheumatoid arthritis causes inflammation of the synovial membrane and results in excessive synovial fluid. It may lead to the cartilage of the bone of the knee.
  3. Traumatic arthritis happens due to injury and can damage the cartilage of the knee.

It is a surgical procedure to resurface damaged knee parts to relieve knee pain that cannot be reduced by other treatment methods. In resurfacing, metal and plastic parts are used to cap the ends of the bone which forms the knee joint.

Anatomy of the knee

knee replacement surgeryJoint gets created where two bones meet. Joints allow mobility. The knee is formed by holding 2 long leg bones together by muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Bones are covered with cartilage. It acts as a shock absorbent and protects the knee.

The knee consists of the following parts:

  • Tibia: It is the larger bone of the lower leg.
  • Femur: It is the upper leg bone.
  • Patella: It is the kneecap.
  • Cartilage: It is covers the surface of a bone at a joint. It acts as shock absorbent and helps to reduce the friction of movement within a joint.
  • Synovial membrane: It is a tissue that lines the joint and seals it into a joint capsule. It secretes synovial fluid along the joint in order to lubricate it.
  • Ligament: It is a tough, elastic connective tissue which surrounds the joint and give support & limits the joint’s movement.
  • Tendon: It connects muscles to bones and helps to control movement of the joint.
  • Meniscus: It is a curved part of cartilage present in the knees and other joints. It acts as a shock absorber.

Why knee replacement surgery is performed?

Knee replacement surgery is performed to reduce pain and improve mobility in the knee. It is mostly required in osteoarthritis. It is the condition in which there is breakdown of joint cartilage. Osteoarthritis limits mobility and causes pain. People suffering from it face problem to do normal activities like bending knee, climbing stairs and walking. Therefore to reduce this pain, knee replacement surgery is performed.

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